the Pomerium <>-the boundary of the sacred inner city of Rome-had their axe blades removed; within the city, the power of life and death rested with the people through their assemblies. However, during times of emergency, the Roman Republic might choose a dictator to lead for a limited time period, who was the only magistrate to be granted capital punishment authority within the Pomerium. Lictors attending the dictator kept the axes in their fasces even inside the Pomerium-a sign that the dictator had the ultimate power in his own hands.7
Papal Influence
The principle of modern Fascism as exercised by the dictators of Europe in the 1930’s and 1940’s, Mussolini, Hitler, Franco, Pavelich and Salazar, has its origin not in the secular but in the religious realm. Its fundamental foundation can be found in a Papal Encyclical Letter of Pope Pius XI, which was issued on the 15th of May 1931 entitled Quadragesimo Anno (Latin for the 40th Year). It is also termed “On the Reconstruction of the Social Order,” which was to signify forty years since Leo XIII’s ground breaking Encyclical called Rerum Novarum, On The Condition of Working Classes which deals with the struggle between capital and labour. It was to repeat in more orthodox language what Karl Marx had said ten years before in Das Kapital, published in 1881.8 Dr. L. A. Lehman in his book Behind the Dictators states “The misconception that the corporative system is purely an economic matter, has blinded the American press and public to the real aim behind Catholicism’s advocacy of it.  Corporatism is indeed the economic ingredient of Fascism. But it is also the essential element of Fascism, since the corporatives make a parliament or congress unnecessary. For these corporatives are the means through which the “Leader” exercises his dictatorial will. It was precisely because the Supreme Court judged, by the NRA,9 Congress had advocated its powers and was thus paving the way for Fascism, that it took vigorous action against it.  The entire ideology of Fascism and Nazism - in social, economic, educational, religious and military matters - is contained in the corporative system. Corporatism is Fascism.”10
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